The following are books that can help introduce students to the concept of intergenerational relationships:

Intergenerational programs increase self-esteem and feelings of well-being for older and younger participants. Friendships between older and younger people help make communities stronger.
— Government of British Columbia
25% of residents aged 65 and older say they do not feel a sense of community belonging
— Vancouver Coastal Health, 2015
Through interacting with seniors, young students can connect their learning about lifespan, health and aging to real life and have the opportunity to understand and practice empathy and compassion with seniors
— Machir & Skinner, 2004


The following are research papers on the benefits of intergenerational friendships:

Bostrom, A.-K. (2003). Intergenerational learning in Stockholm County in Sweden: A practical example of elderly men working in compulsory schools as a benefit for children. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, 1(4), 7-24.

Bressler, J. (2001). The impact of intergenerational programs on long-term care residents. at Gerontological Society of America.

David, D. (2004). Effective intergenerational caregiving collaboratives: Linking students and elders through service-learning. International Consortium for Intergenerational Programmes Second Biennial Conference.

Herrmann, D. S., Sipsas-Herrmann, A., Stafford, M., & Herrmann, N. (2005). Benefits and risks of intergenerational program participation by senior citizens. Educational Gerontology, 31(2), 123-138.

Hoff, A. (2007). Intergenerational learning as an adaptation strategy in ageing knowledge societies. Education, Employment, Europe, 126-129.

Lynott, P. P. & Merola, P. R. (2007). Improving the attitudes of 4th graders toward older people through a multidimensional intergenerational program. Educational Gerontology, 33(1), 63-74.

MacDonald, M. (2005). Intergenerational interactions occurring within a shared reading program. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, 3(4), 45-61.

Machir, J., & Skinner, C. J. (2004). Pencil Pals: Bridging the Community and Generations. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, 2(2), 101-103.

Marcia, S. M., Alicia, R. P., Parpura-Gill, A., & Cohen-Mansfield, J. (2004). Direct observations of children at risk for academic failure: Benefits of an intergenerational visiting program. Educational Gerontology, 30(8), 663-675.

Meshel, D., & McGlynn, R. P. (2004). Intergenerational contact, attitudes, and stereotypes of adolescents and older people. Educational Gerontology, 30(6), 457-479.

Morrice, C., & Simmons, M. (1991). Beyond reading buddies: A whole language cross-age program. The Reading Teacher, 44(8), 572-577.

Newman, S., & Hatton-Yeo, A. (2008). Intergenerational learning and the contributions of older people. Ageing horizons, 8(10), 31-39.

Schwalbach, E., & Kiernan, S. (2002). Effects of an intergenerational friendly visit program on the attitudes of fourth graders toward elders. Educational Gerontology, 28, 175-187.

Slaght, E., & Stampley, C. (2006). Promoting intergenerational practice. Journal of intergenerational Relationships, 4(3), 73-86.

Smith, B. J., & Yeager, A. (1999). Intergenerational communities: Where learning and interaction go hand-in-hand. Child & Youth Services, 20(1-2), 25-32.

Weinstein, L. (2005). Student Awareness Day programs: An intergenerational program to reduce prejudice. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, 3(2), 133-136.